Local T cell immunity, an important component of the TME and the focus of many studies of our facility, is strictly controlled by immune escape mechanisms. Notably, T cell immunity, when assessed according to multiple parameters, such as the presence of effector cells (not limited to T cells), MHC molecules, suppressor cells, as well as checkpoint inhibitors, demonstrates an improved correlation to clinical benefit. Using Vectra® (Akoya Biosciences, Inc.) technology, we can interrogate tumor (sub)types with respect to the occurrence of (dominant) immune escape mechanisms with use of the following panels:

Immune effector cells

CD3, CD8, CD20, CD56, CD68, Cytokeratine, DAPI (finalized)

Immune suppressor cells

CD8; CD4, FOXP3 (T regulatory cells), CD163 (M2 macrophages); and CD11b, CD33 (MDSC), Cytokeratine, DAPI (nearly finalized)

Antigen presentation and processing

CD8, MHC I and II alleles, beta-2M, TAP-1, 2, Cytokeratine, DAPI (under development)

Immune checkpoints

CD8, Ki67, PD1, TIM3, PD-L1, Galectin-9, Cytokeratine, DAPI (under development)

With inForm® (Akoya Biosciences, Inc.) software, part of the Vectra® technology, and our own TME software (awaiting licensing), we will determine numbers of immune cells in different areas of the tumor, as well as assess distances between CD8 T cells (or other immune cells) and cancer cells.